Pro Forma Definition

Pro Forma Financial Statements

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  • Pro forma statements don’t need to meet the strictest accounting standards, but must be clearly marked as “pro forma” and can’t be used for things like filing taxes.
  • Compensation and benefits, excluding employee initial public offering awards.
  • If she wins in Vegas, she can pay off both her car loan and her student loan and still have an increased free cash flow.
  • ScaleFactor is on a mission to remove the barriers to financial clarity that every business owner faces.
  • However, for all regular income statements presented in a filing, there must also be a pro forma statement.
  • For discontinued operations (ASC ) that are not yet reflected in the annual historical statements.

There are other stable variables that aren’t influenced by sales on the income statement, including operating expenses, depreciation and amortization, and interest expense. The COGS figure does directly vary with sales; if it does not, something is wrong with your numbers. The COGS forecast is the COGS/Sales ratio from several years multiplied by the sales forecast. The ending balance in the cash flow statement ($40,000), Pro Forma Financial Statements agrees with the cash balance in the balance sheet. A full-year projection is just what the name suggests—accounting for the current year. For example, if it’s currently April and you want to perform a full-year pro forma projection, you would account for all the financials up to April and project the remainder of the year. Here we’ll be covering definitions, uses, and benefits of pro forma statements.

Accountants who prepare companies’ pro forma financial statements are bound by certain requirements, as per the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants ’s Statements on Standards for Accounting and Review Services . The SSARSs say that the auditor promises no material modification to the historical financial documents and understands that they are simply showing changes to the company’s financial picture based on a transaction or event using adjustments. They must also ensure they label all pro forma information as such, to avoid confusion with historical information, and list the specific assumptions and uncertainties about them they are making.

Accounting Topics

Net proceeds from the offerings reflect the deduction of underwriting discounts and of estimated expenses payable by Goldman Sachs in connection with the offerings. The NCUA’s economists and analysts compile data on the credit union system’s financial performance, merger activity, changes in credit union chartering and fields of membership, as well as broader economic trends affecting credit unions. Users can find information on a single credit union or analyze broader nation-wide trends. Pro forma taxes are figured by taking your estimated tax rate—in this case, 30 percent—and multiplying it by the pro forma profit before taxes of $235,000. To figure your pro forma gross profit for next year, subtract the pro forma cost of goods sold from the pro forma sales. Thus, $1,100,000 minus $550,000 equals your gross profit, or $550,000. Your balance sheet’s closing cash balance is the sum of the previous period’s closing cash and the current period’s cash from operations, financing activities, and investing.

Make sure to use realistic market assumptions to write an accurate pro forma statement. Research and speak to experts to determine what a normal annual revenue stream is, as well as cash flow and asset accumulation. Companies are generally prohibited from creating misleading or fraudulent pro forma financial statements. Pro forma financial statements are essentially “what-if” generators, giving you the ability to play through different hypothetical scenarios and explore their potential impact on your business. With Bench, you get a crystal clear image of your financial history so you can focus on planning your future. We’re America’s largest bookkeeping service helping thousands of business owners better understand the financial health of their operations so they can keep focused on growth and planning. When it comes time to create a pro forma statement, you have reliable numbers and reports to get started.

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When Are Pro Forma Financial Statements Prepared?

For businesses that previously acted as a partnership or sole proprietorship that are being acquired into a corporation, the statements must reflect that of the acquiring business. This includes that business’ net sales, cost of sales, gross profit on sales, expenses, other income and deductions, and income before taxes. However, this restructuring charge is a one-time extraordinary item, and is not part of the company’s normal business operations. So, in order to show investors and other interested parties what the company’s income statement would have looked like without that one-time restructuring charge, the company included a proforma version of the income statement in its annual report. Now the income statement, balance sheet, and other data can be used to create the statement of cash flows. This is when you take the financial statements of your business and merge them with financial statements of the other to see what your previous year might’ve looked like and what it may look like in the future. In fact, take each pro forma income statement figure with a grain of salt.

Pro Forma Financial Statements

Let’s take a look at each report in the set and why management would choose to create a pro-forma version. Management is trying to figure out what the business looks like if a business event happens in the future by starting with standard report and adjusting it for the new projections. Making material financial assumptions is a key part of creating a pro forma statement.

My Bank Is Asking For Pro Forma Financial Statements

GAAP enforces strict guidelines when companies report earnings, but pro forma figures are better thought of as “hypothetical” earnings, computed according to the relevance of certain events or conditions. For this reason, investors must examine not only the pro forma earnings, but also GAAP earnings, and never mistake one for the other. Adjustment to reflect cash distributions of $1,232 million by The Goldman Sachs Group, L.P. As permitted by the rules and regulations of the SEC, the Pro Forma Consolidated Financial Information is presented on a condensed basis. The Pro Forma Consolidated Balance Sheet Information was prepared as if the Pro Forma Adjustments had occurred as of February 26, 1999. They have multiple uses for multiple scenarios, ranging from simple sales growth projections to more intricate M&A or investment purposes.

  • This is found by subtracting the total amount of taxes from the yearly profits.
  • Here’s a historical example of a pro forma income statement, courtesy of Tesla Inc.’s unaudited pro forma condensed and consolidated income statement for the year ended Dec. 31, 2016.
  • In our Wal-Mart example, the company would receive a large amount of cash from the line of credit and the new sales.
  • To project future financial statements, you need to be able to envision the expected results of all the items on them.
  • These statements are commonly used for new risk funding programs such as captives and risk retention groups .

The balance sheet will project changes in your business accounts over time. If it’s negative, it means you won’t have enough cash on-hand to run your business, according to your current trajectory. It’s time for the “loss” part of “Profit and Loss.” Calculate the cost of goods sold for each month in your projection. Looking at both best case and worst case scenarios helps you make financial decisions based on challenges you may face in the future.

Problems With Pro Forma Financial Statements

These statements are used to present a view of corporate results to outsiders, perhaps as part of an investment or lending proposal. A budget may also be considered a variation on pro forma financial statements, since it presents the projected results of an organization during a future period, based on certain assumptions. Proforma statements should also set forth conventional financial statements of the acquiring company, and pro forma financial statements of the business to be acquired. Notes to the pro forma statements explain the adjustments reflected in the statements. When presenting the historical operations of a business previously operated as a partnership, the financial information is adjusted to bring the statement in line with the acquiring corporation. Historical data listed in these instances includes net sales; cost of sales; gross profit on sales; selling, general, and administrative expenses; other income; other deductions; and income before taxes on income.

Pro Forma Financial Statements

To do this, you’ll use the estimated revenue projections from step one above and the estimated cost and liability projections from step two above. When you seek investment, you can present a pro forma financial statement which indicates how you’ll use the investment capital to grow your business sustainably. In many cases, pro forma statements are prerequisites for investment.

Adjustment to reflect the issuance of junior subordinated debentures to the retired limited partners in exchange for their interests in The Goldman Sachs Group, L.P. These junior subordinated debentures will have a principal amount of $295 million, an initial carrying value of $371 million and an effective interest rate of 7.5%. The annual interest expense to be recorded on these debentures in the first year will be $28 million. The Pro Forma Consolidated Income Statement Information for the fiscal year ended November 27, 1998 and the three-month fiscal period ended February 26, 1999 was prepared as if the Pro Forma Adjustments had taken place at the beginning of fiscal 1998.

Types Of Pro Forma Financial Statements

Pro Forma financial statements are forecasted financial statements based on assumptions and hypothetical data. Multiply your pro forma profit before taxes by your effective tax rate.

Calculate the estimated revenue projections for your business, a process called pro forma forecasting. Use realistic market assumptions and not just numbers that make you or your investors feel optimistic. Do your research and speak with experts and accountants to determine what a normal annual revenue stream is, as well as asset accumulation assumptions.

Prior to the incorporation transactions described under “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions — Incorporation and Related Transactions — Incorporation Transactions”. For partnerships acquired through the pooling of interests, adding the balance of the partners’ capital to contributed capital in the combined company rather than to retained earnings. Certain pro forma disclosures are required by GAAP (e.g., ASC 805) and should be provided where applicable. Those presentations may differ in style and content from the requirements of S-X Article 11. Historical information of the registrant and business to be acquired should be presented for a recent 12 month period in parallel columns with the forecast. Contractual terms of the combination such as major new compensation contracts with management would require pro forma adjustment if the new contracts are entered into as part of the acquisition agreement. The footnotes to the pro formas should make the computation of pro forma EPS transparent to investors.

It is important to be accurate when creating pro forma financial statements, as this will give the bank a clear idea of how the company is performing financially. If there are any discrepancies between the actual financial performance and the projections, it could mean that the loan is denied. However, if the projections are accurate, it can show the bank that the company is likely to be successful in the future.

A pro forma income statement is a document that shows a business’s adjusted income if certain financial inputs were removed. In other words, it’s a way to show what the income of the business would be if some costs were excluded. Pro forma financial information is required if a significant business combination has occurred in the latest fiscal year or subsequent interim period, or is probable (see Section 2005.4). This includes any transaction or event that results in the registrant obtaining control over another entity. See Topic 2 for definition of a business and tests of significance.

Step #2 Add In Your Assumptions

This is a backward-looking projection of a company’s results in one or more prior years that includes the results of another business that the company wants to purchase, net of acquisition costs and synergies. This approach is useful for seeing how a prospective acquisition could have altered the financial results of the acquiring entity. Effect on stockholders’ equity of employee initial public offering awards. For example, management might anticipate closing a distribution deal with Wal-Mart in the next six months that will lead to an additional $5M in sales. Management will start with the standard income statement and add the estimated $5M sales projection along with the corresponding expenses needed to produce and ship these goods to the distributor. If the future deal with Wal-Mart goes through, the company is prepared for it and investors and creditors have an idea about the risks and rewards involved in the future. Remember, what distinguishes these pro forma statements from your standard financials are the adjustments, not the calculations or even the format.

This pro forma balance sheet can also be used for corporate retail or wholesale businesses. Since pro forma financial statements and financial projections are quite similar, they may be considered synonymous. However, financial projections can be built from nothing for a startup company, using specific industry-specific assumptions. By contrast, pro forma financial statements are based on current financial statements and change based on events and assumptions. In other words, pro forma financial statements start from real financial data. In this case, the entrepreneur would create pro forma projections of the various financial statements and present them to the investors.

Similarly, you can use the data to review and decide whether or not you should spend more on your marketing campaigns in the fall months. They are used to provide outside users with these financial statements to have an idea of what the business will look like over a certain period of time in the future if they take a specific course of action. Depending on the purpose of your pro forma statements, you can make them more realistic—closer to actual business performance—by using real data to update your projected figures throughout the year. Take your pro forma statement of income and transfer the change in retained earnings to the balance sheet. Create a pro forma cash flow statement by calculating the end cash positions, net cash change and total cash payments. While it’s helpful to know what a company’s management has planned, it’s important to view these projections with skepticism. Nobody can predict the future, and managers might use overly optimistic assumptions in their pro formas.

Your federal tax rate depends on which tax bracket you, or your company, are in since rates increase for certain amounts of income. State rates might also apply and if they do, add those to your federal tax rate to get a total percentage. This is a report in which a company adjusts its financial results by excluding some information it was required to include under the GAAP framework. Companies issue these statements because they feel that the inclusion of the one-time event impacts the financial history of the company. Projections about the future are not required to follow the strictest accounting standards, but companies must avoid committing fraud when creating pro formas.

The limitation of these statements is that they show the business owner nothing more than a prediction. No matter how good or bad that portrayal may seem, it’s only a good guess as to what may happen. There are both benefits and downsides to the assumption structure that pro forma is built upon. Creating different scenarios – conservative, likely, and ambitious can help you understand the range of outcomes and help you set targets and plan for stable, sensible progress. Your goal should be to observe and analyze the cost-benefit ratio of each situation and prepare accordingly based on your plan. As you track metrics along the way, you’ll be able to course correct and remodel what the future looks like. After the values of all these liabilities have been accounted for, they should be totaled to give the final value of the total liabilities.

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